State of California
AIR RESOURCES BOARD
July 24, 1980
107 South Broadway
Los Angeles, CA
July 24, 1980
80-14-1 Status Report on the Development of Measures to 001
Control Emissions of Sulfur Oxides.
80-14-2 Public Meeting to Consider a Suggested Control 058
Measure for the Control of Volatile Organic
Compound Emissions from the Graphic Arts Industry.
80-14-3 Other Business
a. Research Proposals
b. Delegations to Executive Officer
c. Executive Session
ITEM NO.: 80-14-1
Status Report on the Development of Measures to Control Emissions
of Sulfur Oxides.
This is a status report on the development of measures to control
sulfur oxide emissions in the South Coast Air Quality Management
District by limiting the sulfur content of fuel oil and to
control the emissions in the state by limiting the sulfur content
of diesel oil.
The air quality problems in the South Coast Air Basin
attributable to emissions of sulfur dioxide continue to be
serious. The state standards for sulfur dioxide, sulfate, TSP
and visibility were violated by wide margins in each of the last
four years. Therefore, additional controls on emissions of
sulfur dioxide are needed.
About 30 percent of emissions of sulfur dioxide come from power
plants, about 30 percent from petroleum refining, and about 20
percent from the use of diesel fuels, Fuel oil burned by power
plants and refineries in the air basin is limited in sulfur
content to 0.25 percent, and fuels burned by other sources is
limited to 0.5 percent by weight. Vehicular diesel fuel at
present has no air-pollution-related sulfur limitation, but
gasoline has a limitation at present of 400 ppm and after January
1, 1982 of 300 ppm. Emissions from coke calciners, sulfur
recovery and sulfuric acid plants, and fluid catalytic cracking
regenerators are also controlled. The present limitation on the
sulfur content of fuel is achieved by refining low sulfur crude
oil, particularly Indonesian crude oil. The decreasing
availability of low sulfur crude oils, and the increasing
production of high sulfur California heavy crude oils will make
it more difficult to comply with regulations limiting the sulfur
content of crude oils, unless refiners install equipment to take
sulfur out of the fuel.
To determine the added investment which California refiners would
have to make to produce products that would satisfy a 1985 demand
for petroleum products (including lowered sulfur contents of fuel
oil and vehicular diesel fuel in the SCAB), an Ad Hoc Group of
representatives of affected state agencies and the petroleum
refining industry was formed. At industry expense, the Ad Hoc
Group hired Bonner & Moore Associates, Inc. to conduct a study
using a mathematical model of the California refining industry.
That study was completed in March 1980 and is helpful in
determining the technological feasibility and economic
reasonableness of controls which would reduce the sulfur content
of fuel oil and diesel fuel.
In addition, the staff has conducted surveys of the petroleum
industry to determine the cost-effectiveness of desulfurizing
vehicular diesel fuel, and the staff has made its own estimates
of the cost-effectiveness. Based on the information the staff
has developed and on the information in the California Oil
Scenario Study, the staff concludes that:
1. Changing crude slates and product slates will require
substantial refinery modifications to produce petroleum
products which would comply with regulations now in effect.
2. With additional modifications, refineries can produce fuel
oil with a sulfur content of 0.1 percent and vehicular
diesel fuel with a sulfur content of 0.05 percent by weight.
3. The cost of reducing the sulfur content of such fuels is
economically reasonable and is in line with other sulfur
4. Refinery emission increases as a result of modifications for
lower-sulfur-content fuels are relatively small and probably
can be offset by reducing emissions from other sources
within the refinery.
5. Generally, it is more economical to remove sulfur from the
fuel at the refinery than to install scrubbers on boilers to
remove sulfur dioxide from the stack gas.
6. Benefits of reducing the sulfur content of fuels appear to
exceed the cost.
7. Adoption of a regulation to limit the sulfur content of fuel
should be expedited so that future uncertainty is reduced
and refiners can proceed with planning.
ITEM NO.: 80-14-2
Consideration of a Suggested Control Measure for Volatile Organic
Compound (VOC) Emissions from the Graphic Arts Industry.
The graphic arts industry prints items for visual display.
Printed products include, but are not limited to, advertising
copy, flexible packaging, floor covering, magazine, newspaper
supplements, posters, and wallpaper. There are five major types
of printing processes: (1) gravure; (2) flexography; (3)
lithography; (4) letter press; and (5) screen printing. The
control measure would apply to both the flexographic and gravure
processes, as well as wallpaper screen printing operations (web
type of operations only).
There are approximately 64 gravure, flexographic, and wallpaper
screen printing and coating facilities in California. Emission
of VOC from the 64 facilities are estimated to be in excess of 30
tons per day. The maximum daily emissions are greater than the
average daily emissions because of the greater demand during the
summer months for flexible packages. Approximately 60 percent of
these emissions occur in the South Coast Air Basin, 30 percent in
the San Francisco Bay Area Air Basin, and the remaining 10
percent are distributed in other areas of the state.
The source of emissions of volatile organic compounds from
graphic arts operations is the ink or coating used. Typically,
inks or coatings as applied include about 55 to 85 percent
solvent. The emissions from ink drying occur either in the
drying ovens or as fugitive emissions.
Once the VOC have been captured, they can be removed by highly
effective equipment that is commonly available, such as adsorbers
Alternatively, VOC emissions can be reduced dramatically through
the use of low-solvent inks and coatings. Considerable progress
has already been made in the advancement of low-solvent
technologies for a number of printing operations. The staff
believes that low-solvent technologies can be developed for most
other applications during the next few years. if an incentive is
Use of low-solvent inks and coatings is more economical and
energy efficient than installation of add-on control equipment.
The EPA has published a CTG document which calls for control of
(VOC) emissions from the Graphic Arts Industry. EPA requires
that enforceable measure to control VOC emissions from the
Graphic Arts Industry be adopted by July 1, 1980.
The staff estimates emission reduction of 23 tons per day from
the application of the suggested control measure. The control
measure would apply to publication gravure, flexographic, and
wallpaper screen printing operations. The emission control
measures suggested include the use of low solvent inks, coatings,
and adhesives, the use of emission control devices such as
capture systems, adsorbers and incinerators. The suggested
control measure requires a percentage reduction in volatile
organic compounds from segments of graphic arts operations which
may be achieved by the use of emission capture systems and
emission control systems with specified efficiency rates or by
demonstrating a percentage overall emissions reduction or by
using low solvent inks and coatings, as summarized in the table
below. (SEE BOARD BOOK FOR TABLE).
The suggested control measure provides minimum requirements for
acceptable low solvent inks and coatings and emission control
systems. Any printing, coating, or laminating facility which
emits less than 15 tons per year of volatile organic compound
would be exempt from the suggested control measure.
The ARB staff recommends that the Board approve the suggested
control measure as proposed.