CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD

Co. Administration Center
Supv. Chambers, Rm. 310
1600 Pacific Coast Highway
San Diego, CA

August 9, 1990
9:30 a.m.

AGENDA

Page No.

90-11-1 Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of 001
Amendments to Regulations Regarding Evaporative
Emissions Standards, Test Procedures, and
Durability Requirements Applicable to Passenger
Cars, Light-Duty Trucks, Medium-Duty Vehicles
and Heavy-Duty Vehicles.

90-11-2 Public Meeting to Consider a Report to the 096
Legislature entitled "Review and Evaluation
of Programs for the Reduction of
Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions from Motor
Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems".

90-11-3 Public Meeting to Consider a Technical 123
Guidance Document on Photochemical Air
Quality Modeling.

ITEM NO.: 90-11-1

Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of Amendments to
Regulations Regarding Evaporative Emissions Standards, Test
Procedures, and Durability Requirements Applicable to Passenger
Cars, Light-Duty Trucks, Medium-Duty Vehicles and Heavy-Duty
Vehicles.

RECOMMENDATION

The staff recommends that the Board adopt amendments to the
evaporative standards and test procedures which are applicable to
passenger cards, light-duty trucks, medium-duty vehicles, and
heavy-duty engines.

DISCUSSION

This proposal specifies modifications to the evaporative
standards and test procedures which are currently in effect in
the State of California. The purpose of the proposed changes is
to implement a procedure which is more representative of the
conditions which are typically experienced on high temperature,
high ozone days.

As proposed, the current test procedures would be modified to
include a measurement of: one-hour hot soak emissions at 105F;
diurnal emissions over three 24-hour periods at temperatures
ranging from 65 to 105F; and running loss emissions at 105F.
In addition, the durability requirements for evaporative
emissions control systems would be aligned with those in effect
for exhaust emissions control systems.

The proposal would impose an evaporative emissions standard of
2.0 grams per test for combined hot soak and diurnal emissions,
as well as a 0.05 gram per mile running loss standard. The
emissions during the highest of the three twenty-four hour
periods during the diurnal test are to be added with those
generated during the hot soak test to determine compliance with
the proposed 2.0 gram per test standard. The running loss
standard of 0.05 grams per mile represents the lower limit of
running loss emissions which can be detected by current
measurement equipment. The proposed procedures would apply to
all vehicles subject to exhaust emissions testing on chassis
dynamometers. For those engine families certified using engine
dynamometers or other means, an engineering evaluation would be
required indicating that the evaporative emissions control system
would allow the vehicle to meet the standards.

The proposed evaporative emissions test procedure and standards
would be implemented through a phased four year compliance
schedule beginning with the 1995 model-year and being completed
with the 1998 model-year. this phased-in implementation schedule
will allow a rapid emissions benefit to be realized while
minimizing the engineering and certification burden on vehicle
manufacturers. It will also allow manufacturers additional lead
time to build and modify the evaporative testing facilities
needed to perform the proposed procedure. As proposed, 10
percent of a manufacturer's estimated sales would be required to
certify to the new evaporative emissions standards beginning in
the 1995 model-year, 30 percent in the 1996 model-year, 50
percent in the 1997 model-year, and 100 percent in the 1998
model-year.

SUMMARY AND IMPACTS OF PROPOSED BOARD ACTION

The proposed standards and test procedures would result in
emissions reductions of 35 and 114 tons per day at 75F and
105F, respectively, in year 2000 and 122 and 400 tons per day,
again at 75F and 105F, respectively, in 2010. These emissions
reductions represent approximately 25 percent of the passenger
car evaporative hydrocarbon emissions inventory in 2000 and
approximately 80 percent in 2010. Comparable reductions are
expected from other classes of vehicles covered by the proposed
standards and test procedures.

In addition, the proposed changes would result in statewide
benzene emissions reductions from passenger cars of 0.9 and 2.8
tons per day in the year 2000 at 75F and 105F, respectively,
and 3.05 and 10.0 tons per day at 75F and 105F, respectively,
in 2010.

It is estimated that the retail cost of the system necessary to
comply with the proposed standards will be $18 per vehicle.
total cost for passenger cards in 2010 would be $326.5 million,
or 51 to 17 cents per pound of HC controlled at 75F and 105F,
respectively. These costs compare favorably with the $1.20 per
pound of HC reduced cost of the recently adopted 0.25 g/mi HC
standards for passenger cars and light-duty trucks. The cost of
modifying or building new evaporative emissions test facilities
is expected to be negligible.

ITEM NO.: 90-11-2

Public Hearing to Consider a Report Evaluating Control Programs
for Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Emissions from Motor Vehicle Air
Conditioning Systems.

RECOMMENDATION

Approve the report entitled "An Evaluation of Programs for
Reductions of Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Emissions from Motor
Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems" for submission to the
Legislature.

DISCUSSION

The depletion of stratospheric ozone levels by CFCs has become an
issue of global importance. While many different CFCs exist and
are used in a multitude of applicaitons, emissions of CFC-12 from
motor vehicle air conditioning systems are an important source of
CFC emissions. AB 1736 (Stats. 1989, ch. 1326) requires the Air
Resources Board to evaluate controls for CFC emissions from motor
vehicle air conditioning systems and report the findings to the
Legislature by June 30, 1990. This report must also contain
recommendations regarding legislation needed to achieve control
of these emissions.

In fulfillment of the requirements of AB 1736, a report entitled
"An Evaluation of Programs for Reduction of Chlorofluorocarbon
(CFC) Emissions from Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems" has
been prepared. The report is summarized below.

Considerable scientific research has demonstrated the serousness
of global stratospheric ozone depletion due in principal to CFC
emissions. California currently accounts for 3 percent of global
CFC emissions (weighted to account for the varying ozone
depletion potentials of the different CFCs). Almost half of
California's CFC emissions are comprised of CFC-12, 27 percent of
which is due to releases from motor vehicle air conditioning
systems and related services. Overall, motor vehicle air
conditioning systems account for 12 percent of all the CFCs
emitted in the State. Federal regulations based on the Montreal
Protocol and its amendments will result in the elimination of
CFC-12 production as well as that of many other CFCs by the year
2000. This will result in a major reduction in CFC emissions and
ultimately a reduction in stratospheric ozone depletion. It is
clear that the optimal control strategy for CFC emissions is the
elimination of their production, and it is clear that this is the
most effective action that can be taken.

The Montreal Protocol will be reviewed in two years to determine
if the phase-out of production of CFCs and other ozone depleting
compounds can be further accelerated.

Contained in the report is an analysis of potential approaches
for reducing CFC emissions. These include a ban on the sale of
new motor vehicles which are equipped with CFC-12 during
servicing of mobile air conditioning systems, a ban on the sale
of small refrigerant recharge containers, and the development of
a drop-in replacement refrigerant for use in current in-use
mobile air conditioners. To be beneficial in reducing ozone
depletion, a control measure or measures must reduce demand for
new CFC-12 sufficiently to cause production of CFC-12 to drop
below the level allowed by the Montreal Protocol. The measures
assessed in the report would not reduce demand sufficiently, and
thus their implementation will not have a measurable impact on
global CFC emissions and ozone depletion. Recycling of CFC-12
which will be needed to service air conditioners in current in-use
vehicles which will still be in operation beyond when CFC
production has ceased. In addition, if a drop-in replacement for
CFC-12 can be developed, it may be feasible to collect and
destroy some of the remaining CFC-12.

The staff is proposing to review other uses of CFCs in order to
determine whether the conclusions of the Report are applicable to
these uses of CFCs and report back to the Board by June 30, 1991.
The staff also proposes to monitor the progress of efforts to
eliminate CFC-12 usage in mobile air conditioners and report back
to the Board by January 31, 1995.

ITEM NO.: 90-11-3

California Clean Air Act Photochemical Modeling Guidance.

RECOMMENDATION

The staff recommends that the Air Resources Board approve this
item.

DISCUSSION

Section 40916(b) of the California Clean Air Act of 1988 (the
CCAA) requires the Air Resources Board (ARB) to develop
guidelines for the districts to use to validate air quality
models. The staff has prepared a technical guidance document
(TGD or guidelines) on photochemical modeling entitled "TECHNICAL
GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: Photochemical Modeling" that is intended to
meet this requirement.

In addition, the TGD is intended to fill the general need in
California for guidance on the use of photochemical models. It
is the staff's goal that the TGD promote more consistent and
technically sound applications of photochemical models in support
of the State's air resources management programs.