State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD State Office Building Auditorium 107 South Broadway Los Angeles, CA October 18, 1977 10:00 a.m. AGENDA Page 77-22-1 Approval of the Minutes of the November 24, 1976, Air Resources Board Meeting. 77-22-2 Public Hearing Regarding Proposed Changes to Exhaust 1 Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 1979 and Subsequent Model Heavy-Duty Vehicles. 77-22-3 Public Hearing to Consider Proposed Additions to the 18 Rules and Regulations of the South Coast Air Quality Management District and Consideration of a Proposed Model Rule for the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District for Controlling Emissions from Lightering Operations. 77-22-4 Other Business - a. Executive Session - Personnel & Litigation b. Research Proposals ITEM NO.: 77-22-2 Public Hearing Regarding Proposed Changes to Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 1979 and Subsequent Model Heavy-Duty Vehicles. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 77-49. SUMMARY On Jule 11, 1977 the Environmental Protection Agency conditionally granted California a waiver of Section 209(a) of the Clean Air Act in order to allow California to implement more stringent exhaust emission standards for 1979 and later model heavy-duty vehicles. The condition under which this waiver is granted was that California had to amend its test procedures to allow manufacturers the option of certifying 1979 heavy-duty vehicles under either the 1978 or 1979 test procedures. There are significant instrumentation differences between the two procedures, and EPA did not believe there was adequate lead time for all manufacturers to have the new 1979 instrumentation in place in time for 1979 certification. On September 8, 1977 EPA promulgated its own standards and test procedures for 1979 and later heavy-duty vehicles. EPA's procedures allowed manufacturers the same option regarding instrumentation that EPA had required of California procedures. Further, the EPA test procedures contained technical differences from the ARB procedures, since ARB's procedures had been based on an early draft of the federal regulations. The staff proposes that the Board revise its heavy-duty test procedures to conform to EPA's waiver conditions and to its test procedures. These changes would also require that the 1979 hydrocarbon standard be amended from its current 1.5 gram per brake horsepower hour (gm/bhp-hr) level according to the new, 1979 instrumentation, to an option of 1.5 g/bhp-hr with the new instrumentation or 1.0 gm/bhp-hr with the old instrumentation. This change is consistent with the changes made by the Board when the new instrumentation was adopted last October. ITEM NO.: 77-22-3 Public Hearing to Consider Proposed Additions to the Rules and Regulations of the South Coast Air Quality Management District and Consideration of a Proposed Model Rule for the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District for Controlling Emissions from Lightering Operations. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 77-45 thereby adding Rule 477 "Emissions from Lightering of Organic Liquids" to Regulation IV of the Rules and Regulations of the South Coast Air Quality Management District ash shown in Exhibit A and approve "Proposed Model Rule for Controlling Emissions from Lightering Operations" for adoption by the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District as shown in Exhibit B. SUMMARY The transfer or "Lightering" of crude oil from large marine vessels into smaller ones is currently done off the coast of southern California in order to allow the long distance transport of oil through the use of large supertankers which require greater port area water depths than are available at Los Angeles or Long Beach. Most lightering in southern California waters is now done in the lee of San Clemente Island where clam, deep waters provide an ideal environment for such operations. Lightering operations were infrequent in southern California waters prior to 1974 when less oil was imported and smaller tankers were used for oil transport. The amount of crude oil lightered off the coast of southern California is already approximately 11 million barrels on a monthly basis. Chevron conducts 73 percent of all lightering in the lee of San Clemente Island. Shell and Coastal States Corporation are responsible for the remainder. Lightering also occurs in the Los Angeles/Long Beach harbor. Current lightering operations are estimated to result in emissions of 11 tons per day of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 8 tons per day of organic gases. The source of SO2 emissions is the combustion of fuel in the boilers or engines of the ships engaged in the lightering. The principal source of organic gas emissions is the displacement of vapors from the cargo compartments of the lighters when they are filled with crude oil from the larger tankers which are also called "parent" vessels. Significant amounts of organic vapors are also displaced when either the lighter or the parent vessel takes ballast water into cargo compartments. Some of the vessels currently engaged in lighter operations may not have sufficient segregated ballast capacity to avoid routine ballasting into cargo tanks. A meteorological study conducted by the staff indicates that nearly all of the emissions from southern California lightering operations adversely impact air quality in the South Coast Air Quality Management District and in the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District during the summer smog season. Organic gas emissions from lightering are currently estimated to be as much as 13 percent of all organic gas emissions for the entire County of San Diego on days of maximum lightering activity. To control emissions from lightering, the staff is proposing rules which would control both SO2 and organic gas emissions. One section of the rules would limit the SO2 emissions from lighters to those which would be achieved by the combustion of fuel with a sulfur content of 0.5 percent by weight. To control organic gases, the rule proposed for the South Coast Air Quality Management District would require that the vapor displaced during the loading of cargo compartments be reduced by at least 80 percent from January 1, 1978 to July 1, 1978, by at least 90 percent commencing July 1, 1978, and by at least 95 percent commencing July 1, 1980. The model rule proposed for the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District would require that the organic vapor displaced during the loading of organic liquid into lighters be reduced by at least 80 percent from February 1, 1978 to July 1, 1978, with the remaining reductions and dates the same as is being proposed for the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The vapor control requirements can be met by a variety of techniques including operational restrictions, or the use of vapor recovery systems which duct displaced vapors to the ship boilers or to vapor incineration or condensation devices. The rules would also prohibit operations such as gas-freeing, ballasting into cargo tanks, purging, and tank washing in coastal waters which are upwind of the southern California shoreline if these activities would result in the emission of organic vapors. Implementation of the rules would reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from affected lighters by approximately 75 percent and organic gas emissions from loading by 80 to 95 percent.