CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD
Air Resources Board
Board Hearing Room, Lower Level
2020 "L" Street
December 10, 1992
92-19-1 Public Hearing to Consider: 001
I. The Adoption of New Regulations Establishing a
Periodic Smoke Self-Inspection Program for Heavy-Duty
Diesel-Powered Vehicle Fleets,
II. Amendments to the Existing Regulations Governing
the Roadside Smoke and emission Control System
Inspection Program for In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel
and Gasoline-Powered Vehicles, and
III. Amendment of the California Exhaust Emission
Standards and Test Procedures for 1985 and
Subsequent Model Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and
92-19-2 Public Hearing to Consider Amendments to the 059
Regulation Establishing Designation Criteria and
the Regulation Designating Areas in California as
Attainment, Nonattainment, or Unclassified for
State Ambient Air Quality Standards.
92-19-3 Public Meeting to Consider a Report to the 120
Legislature on "Technologies to Improve the
Detection of High-Emitting Vehicles in a Vehicle
92-19-4 Public Meeting to Consider Research Proposals. 144
December 11, 1992
Those items listed above which are not completed on December 10
will be heard beginning at 8:30 a.m. on December 11.
ITEM NO.: 92-19-1
Public Hearing to Consider:
1. The Adoption of New Regulations Establishing a Periodic
Smoke Self-Inspection Program for Heavy-Duty Diesel-Powered
2. Amendments to the Existing Regulations Governing the
Roadside Smoke and emission Control System Inspection
Program for In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel and Gasoline-Powered Vehicles,
3. Amendment of the California Exhaust Emission Standards
and Test Procedures for 1985 and Subsequent Model
Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Vehicles.
Staff recommends that the Board adopt the proposed regulations
for a periodic smoke self-inspection program for heavy-duty
diesel-powered vehicle fleets (the "periodic smoke inspection
program" or "PSI program").
Staff also recommends that the Board approve the proposed
amendments to the existing regulations governing the roadside
smoke and emission control system inspection program for in-use
heavy-duty diesel- and gasoline-powered vehicles (the "roadside
smoke inspection program" or "roadside program").
Staff further recommends that the Board approve the amendment of
the California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for
1985 and Subsequent Model Heavy-Duty Diesel-Engines and Vehicles
(the "diesel certification procedures").
The PSI Program -- Health and Safety Code section 43701(a)
provides that the ARB shall adopt regulations which require that
owners or operators of heavy-duty diesel vehicles perform regular
inspections of their vehicles for excessive emissions of smoke.
This statute directs the ARB to specify the inspection procedure,
the frequency of inspections, the emission standards for smoke,
and the actions vehicle owners or operators need to take to
remedy excessive smoke emissions.
The proposed PSI program regulations would implement this
statutory mandate by establishing a periodic smoke self-inspection program
for owners of heavy-duty diesel-powered
vehicles operating in California. The regulations would
generally require that vehicle owners inspect (test) their
vehicles for smoke emissions annually according to specific test
procedures. Vehicles which fail to meet specified smoke emission
standards would be subject to repair requirements. The
regulations would also establish record-keeping requirements for
the PSI program.
The Roadside Program -- health and Safety Code section 44011.6
generally requires that the ARB develop a test procedure for the
detection of excessive smoke emissions from heavy-duty diesel
motor vehicles, prohibit the use of heavy-duty motor vehicles
which are determined to have excessive smoke emissions or other
emissions-related defects, and develop and inspection program
under which the ARB and the California Highway Patrol inspect
heavy-duty vehicles. Pursuant to this statute, the ARB in
November 1990 adopted the roadside smoke inspection program under
which the ARB inspects heavy-duty vehicles for compliance with
smoke emission standards and emission control system defects and
Staff proposes to amend the roadside program regulations in two
areas. First, the smoke emission standards applicable to 1991
and subsequent model-year vehicles would be revised. Secondly,
the requirements relating to information which heavy-duty diesel
engine manufacturers must submit to the ARB for purposes of ARB's
administration of the program would be revised.
Diesel Certification Procedures -- Pursuant to Health and Safety
Code Sections 43100 through 43104, the ARB has previously adopted
new motor vehicle emission standards and test procedures for
heavy-duty diesel engine and vehicle certification. Staff
proposes to amend the "California Exhaust Emission Standards and
Test Procedures for 1985 and Subsequent Model Heavy-Duty Diesel
Engines and Vehicles" to allow as an option the use of a low
sulfur petroleum fuel for exhaust emissions certification testing
of 1993 and subsequent model-year heavy-duty diesel engines.
SUMMARY OF IMPACTS
The PSI Program -- The proposed regulations would result in
significant environmental benefits. Staff has estimated that the
program will result in statewide emission reductions of 8
tons/day of particulate matter (PM), 6 tons/day of hydrocarbon
(HC), and 5 tons/day of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 1996.
Owners of heavy-duty diesel-powered vehicles subject to the PSI
program will incur costs of complying with the program, including
vehicle testing costs, vehicle repair costs, and lost time during
The Roadside Program -- The amendments to the roadside program
regulations are not expected to result in significant
environmental or economic impacts.
Diesel Certification Procedures -- The amendment of the diesel
certification procedures is not expected to result in significant
environmental or economic impacts.
ITEM NO.: 92-19-3
Public Hearing to Consider a Report to the Legislature on
"Technologies to Improve the Detection of High-Emitting Vehicles
in a Vehicle Inspection Program".
None - Informational Report.
Health and Safety Code Section 44023(a) (Senate Bill 290-Presley,
1991), required the Air Resources Board (ARB), in cooperation
with the Department of Consumer Affairs, to report to the State
Legislature by April 30, 1992, on all technologies which would
improve the detection of high-emitting vehicles through the
vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M), or the Smog Check
Program. The technologies evaluated by the ARB include the use
of Remote Sensing devices and On-Board Diagnostic systems.
Several recent studies have pointed out that a small percentage
of vehicles are categorized as "high-emitting", and contribute
disproportionately to the total vehicle emissions inventory. It
is also perceived that the current I/M program is ineffective in
identifying these high-emitting vehicles through the idle mode
tailpipe test procedures. In addition, improper and incomplete
vehicle repairs will reduce the effectiveness of the I/M program.
Many vehicles failing the program are repaired only to pass the
idle mode standards, and repair to reduce excessive emissions in
other operating modes are often not made. The current program
also requires the testing of all vehicles in order to identify
the small percentage of high-emitting vehicles. This practice is
costly since the majority of vehicles will pass the Smog Check
inspection. Other reasons believed to reduce I/M effectiveness
involve poor mechanic performance for inspection and/or repair,
readjustment of emission controls by mechanics or motorists after
a Smog Check, and limitations imposed by low repair cost limits.
For these reasons, it is desirable to develop reliable and cost
effective technologies and methods which can efficiently identify
those vehicles with a high likelihood of having emission control
component failure, poor maintenance, or tampering.
Under well controlled testing conditions, remote sensing may be
used to identify high-emitting vehicles in the existing fleet,
and enhance the state's Smog Check program. In conjunction with
the random roadside program, remote sensing would provide the
means of conducting unobtrusive surveys to assist in developing
better emission estimates for the state's motor vehicle
inventory. The main concern with using remote sensing involves
the errors of omission (not detecting some high emitters), and
errors of commission (failing some clean vehicles). It is
possible to reduce the errors of commission by requiring more
than one exhaust measurement per vehicle. Further testing with
remote sensing is necessary to determine the acceptable limits of
these errors. In addition, non-tailpipe related emissions such
as evaporative, positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), and oxides
of nitrogen (NOx) emissions would not be evaluated through remote
On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBD-II) will be phased-in between
1994 and 1996. The OBD-II system would monitor the emissions
control components of a vehicle and alert the driver of any
malfunction. This would allow the opportunity for repairs before
the emissions become excessive and prior to scheduled periodic
inspection. The OBD-II system will help improve mechanic
performance, providing the means for more accurate and efficient
repairs. The immediate identification of malfunctioning emission
control components will reduce the number of potential high-emitting
vehicles in the on-road fleet.