CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD
Bay Area AQMD Building
Board Room, Seventh Floor
939 Ellis Street
San Francisco, CA
December 14, 1990
90-20-1 Public Hearing to Consider Regulations Regarding 001
the California Exhaust Emission Standards and Test
Procedures for 1994 and Subsequent Model Utility
and Lawn and Garden Equipment Engines.
90-20-2 Consideration of Research Proposals: 060
Discussion of Contract No. A932-091 (Proposal Number
Proposal Number 1800-159, entitled, "Remote Sensing and
In-Use Emissions of Motor Vehicles," submitted by the
University of Denver, for a total amount not to exceed
Proposal Number 1794-159 entitled, "Determination of
Usage Patterns and Emissions for Propane/LPG",
submitted by Freemen, Sullivan & Co., for a total
amount not to exceed $37,960.
Proposal Number 1797-159 entitled, "Biodegradation
Technology for VOC Removal from Airstreams; Phase I:
Performance Verification" submitted by the University
of California, Davis, for a total amount not to exceed
Proposal Number 220-39 entitled, "Studies to Determine
Long-Term Health Effects of Acidic Atmospheres,"
submitted by New York University for a total amount not
to exceed $609,432.
Proposal Number 221-39 entitled, "Studies to Determine
Long-Term Health Effects in Acidic Atmospheres,"
submitted by the University of California, Irvine, for
a total amount not to exceed $490,000.
Proposal Number 222,40, entitled, "Watershed
Biogeochemical Processes Affecting Surface Waters in
the Sierra Nevada, with Emphasis on Snow Melt
Episodes", submitted by the University of California,
Santa Barbara, for a total amount not to exceed
ITEM NO.: 90-20-1
Public Hearing to Consider Regulations Regarding the California
Exhaust Emission Standards and Test Procedures for 1994 and
Subsequent Model Year Utility and Lawn and Garden Equipment
The staff recommends that the Air Resources Board (the ARB or
Board) adopt exhaust emission standards and test procedures for
utility and lawn and garden equipment engines. The staff also
recommends that the Board adopt emission control label, warranty,
and new engine compliance and quality-audit testing requirements.
The California Clean Air Act (CCAA) as codified in Health and
Safety Code Sections 43013 and 43018 grants the ARB authority to
regulate emissions from off-road vehicles and other mobile
sources in order to achieve a 55 percent reduction in
hydrocarbons (HC), a 15 percent reduction in oxides of nitrogen
(NOx), and the maximum feasible reduction for carbon monoxide
(CO), particulate (PM), and toxic air contaminants (TAC).
Utility engines are the first off-road category presented to the
Board for consideration of exhaust emission standards. This in
part is a result of a court order, issued February 6, 1990, in
the case of Citizens for a Better Environment vs. Deukmejian, et
al (731 F. Supp. 1448 (N.D. Cal. 1990). In its order, the court
found certain commitments made in the Bay Area Air Quality
Management District's (BAAQMD) 1982 State Implementation Plan
(SIP) had not been met. The court order directed the ARB or
BAAQMD to adopt utility engine regulations on or before January
7, 1991, with full implementation by January 7, 1994. Although
the court order is limited to the San Francisco Bay Area, the ARB
has advanced its schedule for adoption of a comprehensive
statewide utility engine regulation approximately four months to
coincide with the court order.
The California statewide utility engine exhaust emissions
inventory for 1989 is estimated to be 70 tons per day (tpd) HC,
495 tpd CO, and 2 tpd NOx. It is estimated that the utility
engine category's emission contribution is equivalent to five
percent of the HC and four percent of the CO statewide on-road
mobile source emissions inventory. This approximates the
emissions from 3,500,000 new 1991 model passenger cards driven an
average of 16,000 miles per year.
For these reasons, the staff is proposing utility engine
regulations designed to achieve the maximum feasible emission
reductions. A two tier set of exhaust emission standards are
proposed for utility engines. The first set of standards would
be implemented in 1994; these standards would require engine and
carburetion design modifications. The second set of standards
are proposed for 1999, and would require manufacturers to
redesign engines and use catalyst technology.
Compliance with the utility engine emission standards would not
end with the testing of prototypes. With on-road engines, the
ARB has in-use regulations designed to ensure compliance with new
engine emission standards. The staff believes an in-use program
for utility engines is not feasible. Instead, the staff proposes
that one percent of a manufacturer's engines produced for sale in
California be selected at random for emissions testing at the
manufacturer's assembly-line facility. The testing will begin
with the 1995 model year to give manufacturers additional lead
time to comply. If emissions values remain low, reduced testing
could continue. The staff also proposes an option for
manufacturers to develop their own quality audit procedures.
Under the proposed regulations, the ARB would reserve the right
to confirmatory test a small sample of new 1994 and subsequent
utility engines produced for sale in California. These tests
would be done at the manufacturer's expense, and would most
likely be done by an ARB contractor.
The staff also proposes that manufacturers provide a two year
emissions warranty to the ultimate purchaser. The warranty would
ensure that the 1994 and subsequent engines are free from defects
in workmanship or material of any emissions-related part of the
The staff proposes that each new 1994 and subsequent year utility
engine be affixed with a label that identifies it as a
California-certified engine and states that it conforms to all
applicable California utility engine emission regulations. These
labels would also provide the engine owner and service mechanics
with information necessary for proper maintenance and repairs.
The staff proposal also includes provisions to allow the sale of
non-California-certified engines to emergency agencies if engines
are unavailable, to prevent the sale of pre-1994 replacement
engines after 1999, and allow engines certified to other
California emission regulations to be used in utility equipment.
SUMMARY OF IMPACTS OF PROPOSED ACTION
The staff estimates that the proposed regulations will result in
a statewide emission reduction of 58 tons/day HC and 375 tons/day
CO with no change in NOx emissions in the year 2010. In the San
Francisco Bay Area, staff estimates the proposed regulations will
result in an emission reduction of 8 tons/day HC by the year 2000
and 12 tons/day by the year 2010. The proposed 1994 emission
standards will result in an estimated cost increase of $30 per
engine, with a cost effectiveness of $0.21 per pound ($/lb.) of
HC + NOx reduced for four-stroke utility engines. Two-stroke
utility engines will result in a estimated increase of $40 per
engine, with a cost effectiveness of $0.98 and $0.08/lb. HC + NOx
reduced for engines <50 cc > cc, respectively. For 4-stroke
engines in 1999, the proposed regulations will result in an
estimated cost increase of $35 per engine, with a cost
effectiveness of $5.52 lb. HC + NOx reduced. The cost to comply
with the 1999 standards for 2-stroke engines is estimated at $60,
with a cost effectiveness of $0.46/lb. HC + NOx + PM reduced.