State of California AIR RESOURCES BOARD Junipero Serra Building 107 S. Broadway Room 1138 Los Angeles, CA December 19, 1973 9:30 a.m. AGENDA 73-28-1 Approval of Minutes of November 14, 1973. 73-28-2 Public Hearing - Proposed Changes to Standards and Test Procedures for 1975 and Later Heavy-Duty Diesel and Gasoline-Powered Vehicles. 73-28-3 Public Hearing - Proposed Regulations for Accrediting Auxiliary Gasoline Fuel Tanks. 73-28-4 Public Hearing - Proposed Regulations Concerning Certificates of Compliance for 1973-1974 Heavy-Duty Diesel-Powered Vehicles. 73-28-5 Consideration of Changes in NOx Retrofit Device Installation Schedule Because of the Need to Conserve Fuel. 73-28-6 Consideration of Air Quality Product's Request to Use AQP's 1966-1970 Pure-Power Device in their 1955-1965 Retrofit Control System. 73-28-7 Preliminary Consideration of Standards and Test Procedures for Accrediting Retrofit Devices to be Sold on a Nonmandatory Basis Without Monetary Limitations. 73-28-8 Staff Report - Field Experience on Vehicles Equipped with NOx Retrofit Devices. 73-28-9 Other Business. 73-28-10 Remarks from Audience - End of Morning and Afternoon Sessions. ITEM NO.: 73-28-2 Public Hearing Regarding the following: 1) California Exhaust Emission Standards, Test and Approval Procedures for 1975 and Subsequent Model-Year Engines in Gasoline-Powered Motor Vehicles Over 6,000 Pounds Gross Vehicle Weight. 2) California Exhaust Emission Standards, Test and Approval Procedures for Diesel-Engines in 1975 and Subsequent Model-Year Vehicles Over 6,000 Pounds Gross Vehicle Weight. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 73-61. DISCUSSION The Board at its meeting on November 14, 1973 adopted standards for 1975 and subsequent model-year gasoline and diesel-powered heavy-duty engines. These standards were adopted by emergency regulation without a formal notice of hearing. The emission standards are: 1) 1975 and 1976 gasoline and diesel-fueled heavy-duty engines - HC + NOx - 10 grams/BHP-hr CO - 30 grams/BHP-hr 2) 1977 and subsequent model-year gasoline and diesel fueled heavy-duty engines - HC + NOx - 5 grams/BHP/hr CO - 25 grams/BHP-hr These standards were set on the assumption that the Federal heavy-duty vehicle test procedures, Subpart H and J, title 40, Chapter 1, Part 85 of the Code of Federal Regulations, would be adopted with certain exceptions. These exceptions are: Subpart H - Procedures for gasoline-powered heavy-duty engines. 1) 85.774-7 Service accumulation and emission measurements. Adopted with the following addition to paragraph (d). (d)...The average brake horsepower for all tests at each mode for each engine family shall be reported. 2) 85.774-10 Gasoline fuel specifications. The proposed procedures require fuel of similar specifications except that the maximum RON shall be 91 for all required emission tests and the lead content of such fuel is not specified. Subpart J - Procedures for diesel-powered heavy-duty engines. 1) All portions of Sections 85.974-4, 85.974-6, etc., pertaining to durability testing and smoke emissions for diesel-powered heavy-duty engines are deleted. Manufacturers are required to submit evidence to demonstrate the durability of the emission control systems. 2) Section 85.974-7 Service accumulation and emission measurements. Adopted except for (b) and include in (d) the requirement that the average brake horsepower for all tests at each mode for each engine family shall be reported. Amendments to Sections 1956 and 1957 of Title 13, California Administrative Code will incorporate these revised standards and test procedures. ITEM NO.: 73-28-3 Public Hearing - California Criteria and Test Procedures for Accrediting Auxiliary Gasoline Fuel Tanks. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 73-62. DISCUSSION On September 8, 1971, the Attorney General rendered an opinion (No. SO 71/21) that the installation of an auxiliary gasoline fuel tank on a vehicle equipped with a Federal or California approved evaporative emission control system would be in violation of the provisions in Section 27156 of the Vehicle Code. Assembly Bill 1849 adopted during the 1973 legislative session requires the Air Resources Board to establish standards or criteria for accrediting auxiliary gasoline fuel tank evaporative control devices or systems for vehicles which are equipped with a required fuel evaporative control device or system. The proposed criteria and test procedures are applicable after January 1, 1974 to all auxiliary gasoline fuel tank installations on vehicles equipped with a required evaporative control system. These procedures require that the auxiliary gasoline fuel tank subject to accreditation by the Board shall provide substantially the same degree of control as the originally approved evaporative control system. The proposed procedures for determining compliance with this standard are set forth in "California Criteria and Test Procedures for Accrediting Auxiliary Gasoline Fuel Tanks", dated December 19, 1973. ITEM NO.: 73-28-5 Consideration of NOx Retrofit Device Installation Schedule Because of the Need to Conserve Fuel. RECOMMENDATION Adopt Resolution 73-27G which continues installation on change of ownership in the San Diego, South Coast and Bay Area Air Basins, commences statewide installation on change of ownership April 1, 1974, and defers the license plate program until January 1, 1975. DISCUSSION The NOx retrofit devices for 1966-70 light-duty vehicles are currently being installed upon transfer of ownership (and upon initial registration of out-of-state vehicles) in the 16 counties which lie completely or partially in the San Diego, South Coast and Bay Area Air Basins (viz., the Counties of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, Contra Costa, Solano, Napa, Sonoma and Marin). If no action is taken today, on January 1, 1974, installation will expand to all counties and also the 10 month "license plate" program will commence statewide. In other words, all non-exempt 1966-70 light-duty vehicles will have to have a device by November 1, 1974. This schedule was finalized on October 30, 1973, just before the acuteness of the fuel crisis became widely known. On November 16, 1973, Governor Reagan wrote the Air Resources Board (copy of letter attached) requesting the Board to "reconsider its statewide program for mandatory installation of retrofit devices". This agenda item was scheduled pursuant to this request. It is clear that all NOx devices have some impact on fuel consumption. Depending upon the type of device and the vehicle, this will range between 0 and 10%. For a motorist with no public transportation to use to get to work, and with the imminent shortage of gasoline and the possibility of gas rationing, a 10% fuel penalty could prove very burdensome. Attached is a staff report, "The Effect of Retrofit Emission Control Devices on Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions", which discusses the impact when various modifications are made in the installation schedules. For example, if NOx retrofit devices were not required on any 1966-70 vehicles, 180 tons per day of NOx would not be prevented from entering the air on 1975, but a one percent increase in total gasoline consumption would not occur. This is a savings of an estimated 100 million gallons of gasoline in 1975. When compared to the present installation schedule, implementation of the provisions in Resolution 73-27G will result in the noncontrol of approximately 100 tons per day of NOx from 1966-70 model-year vehicles in 1974 and 30 tons in 1975, and the prevention in 1974 of an increase of approximately .5% in gasoline consumption amounting to 50 million gallons, and in 1975 the prevention of .13% increased consumption or 13 million gallons. In another staff report attached, "Legal Aspects of Modifying the Schedule for Installing 1966-70 NOx Devices", it is pointed out that the board probably lacks the power to completely halt or defer the program. But it can delay statewide installation for a limited time, and it can defer or delete the license plate program, but "for extraordinary and compelling reasons only". The energy crisis could be considered a sufficient reason, since it appears that a gasoline shortage exists and will grow more acute and that gasoline rationing may occur. It is also known that to increase the production of heating oil and diesel fuel, which also are in short supply, the production of gasoline must be reduced. While the Board may consider the fuel crisis, it must consider the mandate from the legislature to install devices and must not lose sight of its primary goal -- to improve air quality. The staff believes that even if the Board had the authority to completely defer the program, this could not be justified in term of air quality, especially since it would be very difficult to start the program once stopped. The staff recommends that the conflicting interests be balanced, that the present installation in the three air basins be continued on change of ownership, that statewide installation on change of ownership be deferred until April 1, 1974, and that the license plate program be deferred one year. The deferral of statewide installation for three months gives the legislature adequate time to revise this aspect of present legislation. The deferral of the license plate program causes a significant reduction in overall gas penalty from the NOx devices and gives the legislature the opportunity to delete it if it wishes; if the legislature does not do so, the Board can reevaluate the program later and continue with it in 1975 or delete it, as the facts warrant. Thus, under this proposal, the Board today would make as few final commitments as possible, yet it would alleviate the gasoline shortage somewhat. The integrity of the program would be preserved. It should be noted that the phase-in to staggered vehicle registration commences in 1975. It appears that the license plate program will have to be modified to fit the new DMV procedures; Resolution 73-27G would direct the staff to develop a new license plate schedule with DMV for 1975. ITEM NO.: 73-28-6 Consideration of Air Quality Products' Request to Modify its "55-65 Pure Power" Device to the "66-70 Pure Power" Device Configuration. RECOMMENDATION Approve Air Quality Products, Inc. Request to modify the "55-65 Pure Power" device. SUMMARY Air Quality Products, Inc. Has requested permission to modify its accredited "55-65 Pure Power" device. The proposed modifications are to standardize the basic timing control module and speed switch setting for the vacuum spark advance restoration to the same configuration as the "66-70 Pure Power" device. Emissions test data and timing curves were submitted by Air Quality Products to substantiate its claim that the modified device will be as effective as the accredited device for 1955-1965 model-year vehicles. ITEM NO.: 73-28-7 Consideration of Standards and Test Procedures for Accrediting Retrofit Devices to be Sold on a Nonmandatory Basis Without Monetary Limitations. RECOMMENDATION Informational item. A Public Hearing concerning standards and procedures will be held at a future date. SUMMARY Assembly Bill 1074 enacted during the 1973 legislative session added Section 39107.3 to the Health and Safety Code. This section authorizes the Board to set standards for accrediting emission control devices substantially below present standards, and to accredit devices that meet these standards. No monetary limitations are imposed upon devices so accredited. After one or more such devices have been initially accredited under this section, the Board is prohibited from accrediting less effective devices unless a cost-benefit analysis indicates that the less effective device is substantially less costly, and therefore merits accreditation. Section 39107.3 also allows the Board to permit the installation of a device accredited in lieu of any approved, certified, or accredited device, if such device will result in equal or less emissions than the approved, certified, or accredited device over the life of the vehicle. The applicant shall be responsible for proving such results. Owners of used vehicles may purchase more effective but more expensive devices than those required by law, without altering the legal requirements of the latter. The staff recommends that a new device be required to effect a 40% reduction in emissions of a t least 2 of the 3 pollutants (HC, CO, NOx) from those obtained with the mandatory devices for the vehicle categories specified. ITEM NO.: 73-28-8 Report on Field Experience on Vehicles Equipped with NOx Retrofit Devices. RECOMMENDATION Approve report for forwarding to the Senate no later than January 1, 1974. SUMMARY Senate Resolution 52 requested the Air Resources Board to conduct a survey of experience gained in the use of NOx retrofit controls installed in the field. This survey includes reports from ARB and Bureau of Automotive Repair field investigators, NOx device manufacturers and ARB emission surveillance data.