Summaries of Research Proposals - December 2000
This page last reviewed September 19, 2008
Resolution No. 00-46 - "Environmental Health Conditions in Portable Classrooms," Research Triangle Institute, $673,879
There has never been a comprehensive statewide assessment of the indoor environmental conditions in California schools. The limited information available indicates that some indoor environmental conditions in portable classrooms potentially put children at risk of serious health impacts. The proposed study will obtain data on portable classrooms in California such as, the number, type, age, condition, location, ventilation system, classroom cleaning and maintenance practices. Measurements of indoor volatile organic chemicals, particles, biological pollutants, carbon monoxide and other building-related factors will also be taken. Study results will be used to: 1) assess the potential for adverse health impacts from environmental conditions and toxic pollutants that may be present in portable classrooms and 2) identify effective actions that can be taken to remedy or prevent any unhealthful conditions.
Resolution No. 00-47 - "Detailed Characterization of Indoor and Personal Particulate Matter Concentrations," Harvard University, $609,145
Understanding the relationship between PM concentrations recorded at monitoring stations and a person's actual PM exposure is essential in developing control measures to adequately protect public health, and is recognized by the National Academy of Science as a major research priority. The primary objective of this proposed study is to characterize, in detail, the contribution of outdoor particles to both indoor and personal PM2.5 exposures. The investigators propose to continuously or semi-continuously monitor PM2.5, its major components, and air exchange rates at the homes of healthy subjects for nine consecutive days. Integrated 24-hour measurements of personal, indoor, and outdoor PM2.5, its components, and gaseous co-pollutants would also be measured. The investigators would determine the influence of specific sources and activities on personal indoor levels and exposures. Source emission rates and particle penetration and deposition rates would also be estimated. ARB would use the study results to improve estimates of indoor and personal exposures to PM from different sources, and to develop effective strategies for reducing PM exposures. This study would complement a nearly completed study of PM exposure in lung-disease patients, which the ARB and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have funded, and similar U.S. EPA studies in Boston and Atlanta. U.S. EPA has also agreed to provide additional funding for expanded work.
Resolution No. 00-48 - "Collection of Evaporative Emissions Data from Off-Road Equipment," Automotive Testing Laboratories, $285,913
The objective of this study is to collect evaporative emissions data from gasoline-powered off-road equipment, for inclusion in the ARB's emissions inventory model, OFFROAD. This project will require evaporative emissions testing of off-road equipment from various categories for diurnal/resting loss emissions, hot soak emissions, and evaporative running loss emissions under real-world conditions. Exhaust emissions will also be collected. In addition, the effect of fuel level, refueling, fuel weathering, fuel type, and the use of emission control technology will be investigated. The in-use population includes primarily lawn and garden, marine, recreational vehicle, and commercial equipment. The procedures to test off-road equipment for evaporative emissions are borrowed from existing on-road test procedures; hence, the need for sealed housing for evaporative determination (SHED) is anticipated. However, the project is also expected to include development and implementation of modifications to these test procedures to account for differences between automobiles and off-road equipment.
Resolution No. 00-49 - "Development of a Test Method to Measure Stationary and Portable Engine Emissions," West Virginia University, $284,019
The objective of this project is to develop a cost-effective in-the-field test method for stationary and portable diesel and gasoline engines. Once approved, this method would be used to determine compliance with State and federal emission standards for newly manufactured off-road engines and, to a lesser extent, emission limits established by the Statewide Portable Equipment Registration Program. The targeted population includes engines from about 40 horsepower (hp) to more than 2000 hp, with the majority having a maximum rating of 250 hp or less. The development of a surrogate I/M-type test method to measure in-use emissions (NOx, PM10, CO and HC) that can be compared to the equipment manufacturer's emissions data and / or correlated to the applicable ISO 8178 certification test procedure is necessary. The method would allow assessment of emission reductions achieved through technology and emission limit requirements established by State and federal ambient air quality standards. As stationary and portable engines are tested with the newly developed method, ARB staff will be able to provide representative emissions estimates for the statewide emissions inventory and support for the recently approved diesel risk reduction plan.
Resolution No. 00-50 - "Improvements for Emissions Inventories for Industrial Coatings and Thinning and Cleanup Solvents," Pacific Environmental Services, $274,456
The ARB's existing inventories for industrial coatings and the solvents used for the thinning and cleanup of both industrial and architectural coatings are based on incomplete and obsolete data. This study will produce a new emissions inventory for these source classes. Surveys will be used to acquire the data, and the new inventories will be accompanied by speciation profiles for several categories of coatings and solvents. Emissions will be resolved on a two kilometer grid and adjusted according to the time of day and day of the week. An inventory updating methodology will also be developed.
Resolution No. 00-51 - "Oxygenated Organics in Gas and Fine Particle-Diesel Emissions for Source Apportionment," University of California, Davis, $249,999
Both gas-phase and particle emissions from diesel engines are significant contributors to California's air pollution. Dynamometer studies have provided some information about the chemical composition of diesel emissions. However, the dilution techniques used in dynamometer studies affect the particle size and mass and the load or test cycle can affect the chemical composition of the emissions. For these reasons, characterization of 'real world' diesel emissions is urgently needed. In addition, preliminary data indicate that some oxygenated organic compounds may be unique components of diesel exhaust. Therefore, research is also needed to assess whether specific chemicals or signature patterns of chemicals can serve as tracers of diesel emissions for source apportionment. This project will develop and test a sampling method to measure carbonyls, multifunctional carbonyls and carboxylic acids in both the gas phase and PM2.5. This method will then be used to sample emissions in the heavy- and light-duty bores of the Caldecott tunnel and test diesel engines at the ARB Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory. The results will provide insights into the gas and fine particulate matter distribution of these pollutants in 'real world' emissions. They will also verify whether oxygenated organic compounds may serve as tracers for source apportionment of diesel exhaust.
Resolution No. 00-52 - "Demonstration of Ozone Impacts on Crop Species in the San Joaquin Valley: Open Top Chambers at Kearny Agricultural Center," University of California, Riverside, $145,301
The objective of this proposed demonstration project is to establish an eight-unit crop-plant / air pollution exposure exhibit at the Kearney Agricultural Center (KAC) in Parlier. Open top field chambers, the same type used in State and federal crop loss assessment programs, will be used to demonstrate the effects of ambient ozone to the thousands of visitors that tour the KAC each year. The exhibit will be operated for three years, using potted plants in Year 1 and plants grown in the ground in Years 2 and 3. Printed materials about the effects of air pollution on crops will be developed for target audiences (e.g., school children) in conjunction with a website for broad-scale dissemination of plant effects information and other research findings. This project would serve to increase public awareness of the effects air pollution has on plants and the need to support measures aimed at attaining State and federal ambient air quality standards to protect human health and welfare.