State of California

Summary of Board Meeting
September 7 and 8, 2000

Lincoln Plaza
Auditorium, 1st Floor
400 P St.
Sacramento, California

MEMBERS PRESENT: Hons. Alan C. Lloyd, Ph.D., Chairman
    Dr. William A. Burke
    Joseph C. Calhoun, P.E.
    Doreen D'Adamo
    Mark DeSaulnier
    C. Hugh Friedman
    William F. Friedman, M.D.
    Matthew R. McKinnon
    Barbara Patrick
    Barbara Riordan

00-8-1 Public Meeting to Consider Support for the National Environmental Respiratory Center

The Board approved Resolution No. 00-28 by a unanimous vote.
00-8-3 Public Meeting for the Biennial Review of the Zero Emission Vehicle Regulation


Staff presented the current status of Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) technology and the prospects for improvement in the near- and long-term. When the ZEV requirement was first adopted, low- and zero-emission vehicle technology was in a very early stage of development. The Board acknowledged that many issues would need to be addressed prior to the implementation date. Thus the Board directed staff to provide an update on the ZEV program on a biennial basis, in order to provide a context for the necessary policy discussion and deliberation.

The ZEV regulation - Section 1962, Title 13, California Code of Regulations - requires that ten percent of the passenger cars and lightest light-duty trucks offered for sale in California by large and intermediate volume auto manufacturers must be ZEVs, beginning in the 2003 model year. To provide flexibility in the ZEV program, the regulation allows different types of vehicles to be used to meet program requirements. For example, manufacturers can use extremely clean advanced-technology vehicles (referred to as "partial" ZEVs) to meet the requirement, except that large-volume manufacturers must, at a minimum, have four percent of their sales be vehicles classified as "full" ZEVs.

The findings of staff and contractor investigations indicate that several battery technologies have demonstrated promise to meet the power requirements for electric vehicle propulsion. However, the cost of these batteries will likely be high, even in volume production. This result, when incorporated into per vehicle initial and lifecycle cost analyses, shows electric vehicles to be significantly more costly than conventional vehicles in the 2003 timeframe. In volume production, however, the lifecycle cost of highly efficient battery electric vehicles can be competitive with conventional vehicles.

The Battery Panel study also found that energy density, which impacts vehicle range, remains an issue. Significant improvements in energy density are not forecast with currently available battery chemistries. Consequently, significant improvements in vehicle range are not expected of near-term electric vehicles. While current electric vehicle consumers have not found range to be an issue, manufacturers are concerned about wider market acceptance of vehicles with limited range.

ZEVs are the "gold standard" for vehicular air pollution control. Looking at both tailpipe and upstream (refueling) emissions, the per vehicle marginal emissions of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and toxics are significantly lower in California for battery electric vehicles than for even the cleanest conventional vehicles. High efficiency ZEVs and hybrid electric near-ZEVs also cut emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases relative to other vehicle technologies.

ZEVs have the potential to reduce the community level impacts from motor vehicle pollution. They also minimize the multi-media impacts of vehicle operation, eliminating the need for a host of upstream petroleum refinery, storage and delivery activities. Finally, ZEVs provide energy diversity, energy demand, and secondary economic benefits.


William Kleindeist Mayor of Palm Springs, Chair of Committee
Jim Boyd Resources Agency
Dan Jacobsen CAL PIRG
Eric Sletten Citizen
Larry Greene CAPCOA
David Harrison NERA/Sierra Research
Steven Douglas Auto Manufactures Alliance
Dave Hermance Toyota
Reginal Modlin Daimler Chrysler
Kelly M. Brown Ford
Lynn Edgerton Citizen
V. John White CEERT
Michael Field Xpress Shuttle
Ellen Garvey Bay Area AQMD
Henry Perea City Of Fresno
Steve Larson CEC
Ben Knight Honda
Sam Leonard GM
Chris Noram Representing Senator Feinstein
Bob Stempel ECD Ovonic
David Freeman Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
Judy Bishop U. S. Postal Service
Cecile Martin Cal Electric Transportation Coalition
Susan Frank Steven & Michele Kirsch Foundation
David Modisette Cal Electric Transportation Coalition
Roland Hwang Union Of Concerned Scientists
Bonnie Holmes-Gen American Lung Association
Janet Hathaway Natural Resources Defense Council
David Swan Citizen
Karen Hay IMPCO
Denny Zane American Lung Association
Patrick Moseley Advanced Lead Acid Battery Consortium
Susan Stephensen California Global Warning Campaign
Mike Thompson Citizen
Jim Scheidler So. California Edison
Kevin Finney Coalition For Clean Air
Jack Doyle Citizen Author
Tom Gage AC Propulsion
Alec Brooks AC Propulsion
Rex Hodge ANUVI Inc.
Vibeke Hastrup Citizen
Tim Hastrup Citizen
Terry Oxford Citizen
Jack Reynolds Citizen
Wendy James Warner Brothers
Ed Kjaer So. California Edison
Mike Jackson A. D. Little
Jasna Tomic Univ. of Delaware
Tim Lipman UC Davis Institute of Transportation Sty.
Michael Kobb Citizen
Ed Huestis City of Vacaville
Tom Turrentine UC Davis Institute of Transportation Sty.
Michael Coates Green Car Group
Tom Darlington Air Improvement Resources Inc.
Steve Heckeroth O2
Robert Marez Senator Boxer
Virginia Jarrow Consumer Coalition Of California
Tim Carmichael Coalition For Clean Air
Bill Mason Citizen
Greg Hanssen Citizen
Lisa Rosen Citizen
Gerald Allen Green Citizen
William Korthof Citizen
Gary Graunke Citizen
Stephen Casner Citizen
Ed Blackmond Citizen
David Raboy Citizen Author
Jerry Pohorsky Citizen
David Packard Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Inc.
Bill Frederick League of Women Voters of California
Michael Lechner EPRI
Enid Joffe CLEAN Fuel Coalition
Steve Oddo Citizen
Todd Dowling Citizen
Paul E. Pulliam Past President Electric Auto Association
Peter Welch California Motor Car Dealers
Tim Frank Sierra Club
Tom Adams City and County of San Francisco
Bill Magavern Committee to Bridge the Gap
Andrew Frank UC Davis
Rue Philips Selectrical
Harvey Eder Public Solar Coalition
Lisa Wurio Citizen
Ruben Willmarth Citizen
Dale Foster Aerovironment
David Miller Citizen
Peter Price Citizen
Chung Lui SCAQMD
Sandra Spelliscy Planning & Conservation League


Approved Resolution 00-29 by a unanimous vote.


STAFF REPORT: Yes (174 pages).