Cold Storage Control Measure for TRUs
This page last reviewed April 12, 2016Background:
California has recently set new targets for reducing air pollution, including decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, to 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030, to 80 percentbelow 1990 levels by 2050, and cutting petroleum use by cars and trucks by up to half from current 2015 levels by 2030. Improving freight efficiency and transitioning to zero or near-zero emission technologies will help achieve these goals by reducing GHG emissions as well as criteria pollutant emissions (e.g. nitrogen oxides, non-methane hydrocarbons, and particulate matter).
TRUs are defined as refrigeration systems that are powered by internal combustion engines (inside the unit housing). They control the environment of temperature-sensitive products that are transported in refrigerated trucks, trailers, railcars and shipping containers. They may be capable of cooling or heating. TRUs are used to transport and store many products, including, but not limited to food, pharmaceuticals, plants, medicines, blood, chemicals, photographic film, art work, and explosives. Transport refrigerators (TR) are similar in most regards to TRUs; but they do not have an internal combustion engine inside the unit housing.
companies use TRUs for extended cold
storage during the four- to six-week period before major holidays and
centers and grocery stores are
known to run out of cold storage space in their buildings, so they
overflow goods in TRU-equipped trucks and trailers outside the grocery
and distribution centers. Some distribution centers also operate in a
way that causes
TRU-equipped trucks and trailers to be parked or queued for extended
for an open loading dock space or manpower to unload goods, or waiting
dispatch or driver pick-up. These
sometimes continue for several days.
A few distribution centers are using refrigerated trailers equipped with
all-electric stationary TRs ( e.g. Carrier Transicold's Vector 8100)
that are plugged into the electric power grid while in use.
In April 2015, ARB staff released a Sustainable Freight Discussion Document which discussed a potential control measure to limit stationary operation of internal combustion engine-driven TRUs for cold storage and incentives to install infrastructure at affected locations. Stationary operating time limits would be phased in over time at grocery stores distribution centers, fleet terminals, truck stops, drop yards, public rest areas, and fairgrounds. Later phases may further reduce the stationary operating time limit and affect more types of facilities or locations. The control measure would encourage more energy-efficient operations that reduce stationary internal combustion TRU engine operating time, resulting in reduced emissions of GHGs and criteria pollutants. Compliance could be achieved several ways:
- Use effective logistics, GPS tracking systems, and dispatch procedures to improve load scheduling;
- Use electrically-driven TRs or TRUs that plug into grid power while stationary (e.g. all-electric TRs, hybrid-electric TRUs, or TRUs equipped with electric standby);
- Use cryogenic TRs (e.g. using liquid nitrogen, liquid carbon dioxide, or liquid air to cool the cargo space);
- Build additional facility cold storage capacity.
This near-term GHG control measure is only in the preliminary concepts phase, and workshops to discuss the concepts with stakeholders will begin early 2016. In addition to producing near-term GHG and criteria pollutant emission reductions, the proposed control measure could help to advance zero and near-zero emission transport refrigeration system commercialization by increasing the earlier penetration of infrastructure that will be needed for those technologies. The same infrastructure that is used to comply with the near-term GHG control measure could be used as zero and near-zero emission technologies become commercially ready.
Posted March 8, 2016
Public workshop Series
Air Resources Board (ARB) staff invites you to participate in a series of public workshops to discuss concepts to reduce air pollution emissions from TRUs.
Date: April 13, 2016
Time: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.
Place: Sierra Hearing Room (2nd floor)
1001 I Street, Sacramento, California 95814
This workshop will also be webcast. The webcast connection is at: https://video.calepa.ca.gov/.
Posted October 12, 2015
Proposition 1B funds are currently available for the replacement of existing diesel TRUs with zero-emission TRs, as well as the purchase and installation of electric and/or cryogenic infrastructure. Such infrastructure could be used for zero-emission units, or hybrid electric TRUs and TRU equipped with electric standby. Solicitations are open at certain California air districts, which are listed at ARB's Goods Movement Website.
Posted August 27, 2015
Zero Emission Transport Refrigerator Technologies List. This list includes a brief technology description, manufacturer's company name, brand or model, website address, and contact information. A zero emission transport refrigerator must not be powered by an internal combustion engine in any way. Electric power for refrigeration system compressor, fans, and controls may come from on-board batteries, provided they are not re-charged by an alternator or generator that is driven by the vehicle engine or powertrain, trailer wheels, trailer axle/differential, or any other contrivance that adds to the vehicle drag and/or engine load. Examples of zero emission TRs include, but are not limited to, TRs with refrigeration system and/or fans that are powered by batteries when on-road, and use battery chargers that are plugged into the electric power grid while stationary or connected to on-board solar panels.
Posted July 31, 2015
The California Air Resources Board (ARB/Board) announces the release of the draft document “Technology Assessment: Transport Refrigerators." The draft technology assessment can be viewed and downloaded from the ARB’s technology and fuels assessment webpage at: http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/tech/techreport/tru_07292015.pdf
Interested parties are encouraged to submit comments on the draft technology assessment through the technology and fuels assessment web page for public comments at:
http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/tech/techreport/comments.htm. We request to receive comments within 30 days of the posting of this draft assessment, if possible.
If you have questions regarding the draft technology assessment, please contact Mr. Rodney Hill, Staff Air Pollution Specialist, at 916-327-5636, or email to Rodney.Hill@arb.ca.gov.
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