CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD

Bay Area AQMD Building
Board Room, Seventh Floor
939 Ellis Street
San Francisco, CA

December 13, 1990
9:30 a.m.

AGENDA

Page No.

90-19-1 Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of a 001
Regulatory Amendment Identifying Vinyl Chloride
as a Toxic Air Contaminant.

90-19-2 Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of a 433
Regulation Identifying Chloroform (ChCL3) as a
Toxic Air Contaminant.

90-19-3 Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of 905
Amendments to Regulations Limiting the Aromatic
Hydrocarbon Content of Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel.

90-19-4 Status of a Report to the Legislature on Prospects 963
for Attainment of the Standards for Particulate
Matter, Visibility, Sulfate, Hydrogen Sulfide, and
Lead.

90-19-5 Public Meeting to Consider Information Regarding 964
the 1990 Update to California's Mobile source Plan
for Continued Progress Toward Attainment of the
State and National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

90-19-6 Public Hearing to Consider the Adoption of 1016
Amendments to Regulations Regarding the Conflict
of Interest Code of the Air Resources Board.

ITEM NO.: 90-19-1

Proposed Identification of Vinyl Chloride as a Toxic Air
Contaminant (Regulatory).

RECOMMENDATION

The Air Resources Board (The Board) staff recommends that vinyl
chloride be identified as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) without a
threshold level.

DISCUSSION

In accordance with the provisions of Health and Safety Code
section 39650 et seq., the Board staff, after consulting the
Department of Health Services (DHS), selected vinyl chloride for
the Board's consideration for listing as a TAC. The staff
selected vinyl chloride for the following reasons: 1) the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lists vinyl chloride as a
hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and California Health and Safety
Code section 39655 requires that HAPs be identified as toxic air
contaminants, 2) the International Agency for Research on Cancer
(IARC) assigned vinyl chloride to Group 1 (agent carcinogenic to
humans) of its classification scheme for carcinogens, and 3) the
EPA assigned vinyl chloride to Group A (human carcinogen) of its
classification scheme for carcinogens.

As required by Health and Safety Code section 39661, a report was
prepared jointly by the Board and the Department of Health
Services (DHS) staffs. This report reviewed the exposure levels
and health effects from exposure to vinyl chloride in California.
Major sources of vinyl chloride are: landfills, publicly owned
treatment works (POTWs), and poly vinyl chloride production and
fabrication facilities. Exposure to vinyl chloride is associated
with the increased incidence of cancer in both humans and
experimental animals.

The Scientific Review Panel (SRP), established by Health and
Safety Code section 39670, reviewed the report. The SRP found
the vinyl chloride report without serious deficiency and
submitted its written findings to the Board. The SRP recommended
that the Board list vinyl chloride by regulation as a TAC, and
found that, based on available scientific information, vinyl
chloride exposure does not have a threshold below which
carcinogenic effects are not expected to occur.

Vinyl chloride has not been detected by the Board's statewide
ambient TAC network. However, "hot spot" exposures to airborne
vinyl chloride from emission sources are likely to occur near a
few landfills. Modeled emissions estimates for two California
landfills were performed based on ambient perimeter monitoring
data collected by the South Coast Air Quality Management District
(SCAQMD) in 1986 and 1987. The emissions estimates and
meteorological information were used in a model to predict vinyl
chloride concentrations at various distances from the landfills.
Population-weighted exposure results calculated from this
analysis estimated that approximately 6 million people living
within about 25 miles of each of the two modeled landfills may
have been exposed to annual average concentrations ranging from
0.004 to 0.34 ppbv vinyl chloride. Using the DHS's best estimate
of cancer unit risk (20 x 10-5ppb-1), 4 to 136 potential excess
cancers are predicted for the 6 million people continuously
exposed to the estimated vinyl chloride concentrations near the
two landfills. Since the SCAQMD study, subsequent ambient
measurements indicate that vinyl chloride emissions from these
landfills have decreased. The decrease in vinyl chloride
concentrations is attributed to the installation of gas
collectors and flares at both landfills.

IMPACTS OF PROPOSED BOARD ACTION

The identification of vinyl chloride as a TAC will not, in
itself, have any environmental and economic impacts. However,
specific control measures may be developed subsequent to
identification and an analysis of potential environmental and
economic impacts will be included in the consideration of such
control measures.

ITEM NO.: 90-19-2

Proposed Identification of Chloroform as a Toxic Air Contaminant
(Regulatory).

RECOMMENDATION

The Air Resources Board (The Board) staff recommends that
chloroform be identified as a toxic air contaminant without a
specified threshold exposure level.

DISCUSSION

In accordance with the provisions of Health and Safety Code
section 39650 et seq., the Board staff, after consulting the
Department of Health Services (DHS), selected chloroform from the
Board's consideration for listing as a toxic air contaminant.
The staff selected chloroform for the following reasons: both the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) lists chloroform as a
possible human carcinogen based on adequate evidence for
carcinogenicity in animals, there are a wide variety of sources
in California; and chloroform is mobile in the environment and is
not naturally removed or detoxified at a rate that would
significantly reduce public exposure.

As required by Health and Safety Code section 39661, a report was
prepared jointly by the Board and DHS staffs. This report
reviewed the exposure levels and health effects of exposure to
chloroform in California. Major sources of chloroform are:
chlorination of water, pulp and paper mills, pharmaceutical
manufacturing, and publicly owned treatment works. Exposure to
chloroform is associated with an increased incidence of kidney
and liver tumors in rodents.

The Scientific Review Panel (SRP), established by Health and
Safety Code section 39670, reviewed the report. The SRP found
that the chloroform report is without serious deficiency and
submitted its written findings to the Board. The SRP has
recommended that the Board list chloroform by regulation as a
toxic air contaminant, and found that, based on available
scientific information, chloroform exposure does not have a
threshold below which carcinogenic effects are not expected to
occur.

The lifetime cancer risk for chloroform is estimated to range
from 3 to 98 cases per million people continuously exposed over
their lifetime to 1 ppb chloroform in the ambient air. Using the
Board's air toxics monitoring network which represents a
population of 20 million and a population-weighted annual
chloroform exposure of 0.03 ppb, the staff estimates an excess of
2 to 60 potential cancer cases might result from continuous
exposure to airborne chloroform. Based on the DHS' best estimate
of potency as a unit risk for chloroform of 2.6 x 10-5 (ppb)-1 and
using California's population-weighted annual chloroform exposure
of .03 ppb, the DHS staff estimates the excess carcinogenic risk
from a 70-year lifetime exposure to ambient outdoor chloroform to
be approximately 16 excess lifetime cancer cases for the
population of 20 million represented by the Board's toxics
monitoring network. Assuming that this best estimate applies to
the California state population of 28 million, this could result
in up to 22 excess lifetime cancers.

Modeling of hot spots was not done for this report. However,
based on emission estimates, potential hot spots include pulp and
paper mills and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes.

IMPACTS OF PROPOSED BOARD ACTION

The identification of chloroform as a toxic air contaminant will
not in itself have any environmental and economic impacts.
However, specific control measures may be developed subsequent to
identification and an analysis of potential environmental and
economic impacts will be included in the consideration of such
control measures.

ITEM NO.: 90-19-3

Public Hearing to Consider Approval of Amendments to the
Regulation Limiting the Aromatic Hydrocarbon Content of Motor
Vehicle Diesel Fuel.

RECOMMENDATION

The ARB staff recommends that the Board approve the proposed
amendments to Section 2256, subsection (g), of Title 13,
California Code of Regulations, in order to modify the procedure
for certifying alternative diesel fuel formulations.

DISCUSSION

On November 17, 1988, the Board adopted a regulation which
established a statewide aromatic hydrocarbon content limit for
motor vehicle diesel fuel to 10 percent for large refiners and 20
percent for small refiners, commending on October 1, 1993. In
addition, the Board approved the concept of allowing flexibility
for certifying the sale and use of an alternative diesel fuel
formulation provided that equivalent emission benefits are
achieved when compare to a 10 percent aromatic hydrocarbon
reference fuel. On May 11, 1989, the Board adopted the
regulatory language for certifying alternative diesel fuel
formulations.

During the subsequent implementation of the alternative diesel
fuel formulation program, the ARB staff found several provisions
of Section 2256(g) that needed to be modified. The modifications
are necessary to improve the clarity and specificity of the
approval process and to ensure that the alternative diesel fuel
will have equivalent emissions benefits compared to the reference
fuel.

To improve the clarity and specificity of the approval process,
the staff proposes to clarify the requirements to submit a
preapplication to evaluate the fuel specification and test
protocol on a case by case basis, to change the minimum number of
test runs currently specified in the regulation from three to
five, and to require applicants to perform their exhaust
emissions testing back to back with no significant delays. The
staff is also proposing that any diesel fuel formulations
certified before the amendments are effective will no longer be
deemed certified unless the fuel satisfies the amended criteria.

To ensure that the alternative diesel fuel will have equivalent
emissions benefits, the staff proposes to modify the statistical
analysis approach used in the current regulation. The current
approach would allow the approval of a fuel which could result in
significantly higher emissions than the reference fuel. The
proposed approach minimizes the likelihood of this occurrence.
The staff also proposes to include a requirement that the
candidate fuel must demonstrate equivalent polyaromatic
hydrocarbon exhaust emissions to further provide assurances that
emissions of toxic air contaminants will not increase when using
the alternative fuel.

ITEM NO.: 90-19-5

Public Meeting to Consider Information Regarding the 1990 Update
to "California's Mobile Source Plan for Continued Progress Toward
Attainment of the State and National Ambient Air Quality
Standards".

RECOMMENDATION

Information only. A written report entitled "California's Mobile
Source Plan for Continued Progress Toward Attainment of the State
and National Ambient Air Quality Standards-1990 Update" will be
presented to the Board.

DISCUSSION

The Mobile source Plan is the ARB's blueprint of adopted and
planned motor vehicle emission control strategies designed to
attain the federal and state air quality standards and to meet
the objectives of the California Clean Air Act. The plan
describes ARB's mobile source emission control program which
consists of four basic emission reduction strategies: 1)
enforcement of emission standards 2) broader and tougher new
emission standards 3) clean fuels and low emission vehicles, and
4) transportation control measures and indirect source control.
The 1990 update to the plan provides a status report on the
control measures already adopted, measures under development,
plus new activities added since the 1988 update.

The emission reduction benefits expected from the implementation
of the adopted and proposed control measures which are likely to
be adopted within twelve months have been estimated for the South
Coast Air Basin, for the year 2000. Results of the analysis
shows that implementation of the control measures will reduce
Basin mobile source emissions by 444, 2295, 298 and 16 tons per
day of reactive organic gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,
and exhaust particulate matter, respectively, in the year 2000.
These reductions represent 58, 38, 33, and 38 percent decrease in
the year 2000 total mobile sources inventory of reactive organic
gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and exhaust particulate
matter, respectively, from the base year 1987. The projected
reactive organic gas and oxides of nitrogen reductions exceed the
emission reduction requirements of the California Clean Air Act.

ITEM NO.: 90-19-6

Conflict of Interest Code Amendments.

RECOMMENDATION

Staff recommends that the Board adopt the amendments as proposed.

DISCUSSION

As required by Government Code Section 87300, the Board adopted
in 1981 a Conflict of Interest Code, designating which members,
employees and consultants are subject to specified categories of
requirements. The Code must designate those who make or
participate in making decisions which could affect private
financial interests. It must be amended periodically to reflect
organizational changes and the addition of positions which are
legally required to be included.

The proposed amendments would add to those already included in
the Conflict of Interest Code five newly created positions and
delete positions which no longer exist. The amendments would
also add the Contracts Manager, Regional Administrative Officer
and procurement officers because these employees participate in
making con