Large Spark-Ignition (LSI) Engine Fleet Requirements Regulation

This page last reviewed July 25, 2016.


elecforkliftARB first adopted emission standards for new off road LSI engines in 1998.  Specifically, the rulemaking required engine manufacturers to certify new LSI engines to a 3.0 gram per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp-hr) combined hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx), or HC+NOx, standard.  The emission control requirements were phased in, in increments of 25 percent of engine sales per year, beginning with the 2001 model year.  Thus, by the 2004 model year, 100 percent of the new engines were required to be emission controlled.  To achieve this standard, manufacturers relied upon the same emission control technologies used in automotive engines for more than 20 years—three way catalytic converters, electronic fuel/air controllers, and oxygen sensors.  The 3.0 g/bhp hr standard represented a 75 percent reduction in emissions versus LSI engines with no emission controls.
Building on this success, in 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) harmonized the federal standard with California’s 3.0 g/bhp-hr HC+NOx standard starting with the 2004 model year and adopted a more stringent 2.0 g/bhp-hr standard for new 2007 and subsequent model year engines.  The federal program demonstrated that additional reductions from new engines were technically feasible and cost-effective.

In the 2003 State Implementation Plan for Ozone (2003 SIP), California committed to achieve NOx and HC reductions of between 6.1 and 13.0 tons per day by 2010 through two additional LSI measures—the development of more stringent new engine standards and the development of in-use fleet requirements.  ARB adopted these two LSI measures in a 2006 rulemaking, which harmonized California’s standard with U.S. EPA’s 2.0 g/bhp-hr HC+NOx standard starting with the 2007 model year, set forth a more stringent 0.6 g/bhp-hr California standard starting with the 2010 model year, and established in use LSI fleet requirements. The 0.6 g/bhp hr standard represents a 95 percent emission reduction versus uncontrolled LSI engines and is still in effect today.

The in-use element of the 2006 rulemaking, the LSI Fleet Regulation, requires in-use fleet operators of LSI equipment to meet specific HC+NOx Fleet Average Emission Level (FAEL) standards.  LSI equipment subject to the LSI Fleet Regulation is found in approximately 2,000 LSI fleets in many diverse California industries, such as manufacturing, wholesale, transportation and utilities, retail, services, construction, and public agencies.  The regulation of in-use LSI equipment provided an enormous opportunity because each uncontrolled forklift has the same emissions per day as over 700 clean passenger cars.  At that time, there were over 30,000 uncontrolled forklifts in California. Amendments to the LSI Fleet Regulation were approved by the Board on July 21, 2016.  The approved amendments establish reporting and labeling requirements for in-use LSI fleets and continue existing recordkeeping requirements previously set to expire June 30, 2016.